Dyslexia-What Are Its Types?
A lot of people are getting confused with the meaning of the dyslexia.
What is dyslexia?
There are actually two different meanings of dyslexia.
The first meaning is the literal meaning since it is based on the etymology of the word itself, “Dys” means problematic or wrong then “lexia” means pertaining to letters or words. Literally, the word dyslexia refers to difficulty with words. Those people that have difficulty in reading has dyslexia.
The second meaning is more wider when it comes to its use and its application. This meaning is usually used by adults with dyslexia or parents of dyslexics. In the application aspect, dyslexia refers to a number of symptom such as problems with spelling, writing and reading, poor memory, does not have physical coordination and has difficulty in hearing.
As you can see ,the meaning of the word dyslexia really greatly depends on how it is being used.
In the year 1973, Newcombe and Marshall attempted to subdivide dyslexia and describe each kind. Their idea started with phonological dyslexia, double deficit dyslexia and surface dyslexia.
Here are the types of dyslexia:
A. Surface dyslexia
One of the symptoms of surface dyslexia is when the person is having mistakes and is inconsistent with the English pronunciation. Here is an example, the word bowl is pronounced as howl and the word pretty is pronounced as jetty.
B. Phonological dyslexia
Phonological dyslexia refers to the failure of adapting the phonics of the English language. People that have phonological dyslexia have problems in reading new words.
Double deficit dyslexia is the term that they use for individuals that have phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia.
D. Visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia
Both of these types are derived from the magnocellular theory of dyslexia. In this theory, people with dyslexia are neurologically weak in their magnocellular cells that can be found in the thalamus part of brain. The thalamus is where the auditory and visual information are processed.
There are studies that shows, that people with dyslexia have difficulties in processing auditory information and visual information.
This means that those children that have poor visual skills but have average hearing skills can be diagnosed as visual dyslexia, and those children that have poor hearing skills but average visual skills are diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.
E. Orthographic dyslexia
Orthography is a group of letters and symbols that will make a language. The english alphabet has 26 letters, while for the Chinese and Japanese language they have thousands of different types of symbols. This means that orthographic dyslexia refers to problems in manipulating and identifying letters in spelling, writing and reading.